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德化瓷业发展历史初探
发布时间:2011-09-16 11:25:00    您是第0位浏览者

DEHUAXIANSHIWOGUOGUDAINANFANGZHUMINGDECHANCIDIQUZHIYI,YESHIWOGUOGUWAIXIAOCIDEYIGEZHONGYAOCHANDI。

DEHUAXIANGUYAOZHIFENBUSHIYITUXIANWENGUANHUIGONGGAO

DEHUAZHICILISHIYOUJIU,YUANYUANLIUZHANG。GUOQUCENGYUJIANGXIJINGDEZHEN、HUNANLILINGBINGYUWEIZHONGGUODESANDACIDOU。JUKAOGUDEFAXIAN,ZHEILIDEZHICIYEZISONGDAIJINRUGUOJISHICHANGYILAI,SHENGCHANHEWAIXIAOSHIZHONGMIANYANBUDUAN,JINJINIANLAIDEGUCIYAOPUCHA,QUANXIANFAXIANGUCIYAOYIZHIYIBAIJIUSHIDUOCHU,SHAOCIGUIMOZHIDA,FENBUZHIGUANGWEIQUANSHENGZHIGUAN,YIWEIQUANGUOSUOSHAOJIAN。ZHIDIYOULIANGHEBIEJUYIGEDEZAOXINGYISHUZAIWOGUOMINYAOTIXIZHONGYIZHIMINGLIEQIANMAO。SONGDAIDEQINGCI、QINGBAIYOUQI,MINGDAIDE“XIANGYABAI”CI、CIDIAO,QINGDAIDEQINGHUACIZAIGUOJISHICHANGSHANGHUODEGAODUDEPINGJIA,WOWEIWOGUODUIWAIDEZHONGYAOSHUCHUPIN,SHIWOGUOYOUJIUWENHUAYICHANZHONGYICUXUANLIDUOMUDEXIANHUA,TAOCIBAOKUZHONGYIKEJINGYINGCUICANDEMINGZHU。

一、早期德化陶瓷的发现

 DEHUACIQISHENGCHANSHIYUHESHI,ZHEISHIMUQIANKAOGUGONGZUOZHEHEXUESHUJIEZHENGZAIYANJIUHETANTAODEWENTI。

GENJUKAOGUFAXIAN,ZAIJINDEHUAXUNZHONGGONGSHEDINGXIDADUIDEYUNWEISHAN、NIUWEIZHAI、SIPUSHANHEMEIHUGONGSHEMEIHUDADUIDEHOUPINGSHANDENGSICHUXINSHIQISHIDAIYIZHI,XIANHOUCAIJIDAOSHIBEN、SHIFU、SHIMAOHEYINWENTAOPIANYIJIYOUTAOPIAN。SHUOMINGLEZAOZAIYUANSHISHEHUIHOUQI,DEHUAYIYOURENQUNJUZHU,BINGQIEKAISHISHENGCHANHESHIYONGTAOQI。

MEIHUDADUIHOUPINGSHANCHUTUDEXINSHIQISHIDAITAOPIAN  XIANWENGUANHUIGONGGAO

DEHUAXIANZAOQIDECIQISHISHUYUQINGYOUXITONGDEQINGCI,YIHOUSUIZHESHENGCHANJISHUDEZENGJIN,ZHILIANGDETIGAO,ZHUBUFAZHANWEIQINGBAIYOUYIZHIBAICI。

1968NIANXIUJIANCHENGGUANZHISANBANDEGONGLUSHI,ZAISHIPAIGEGUCIYAOZHIFUJINFAXIANXIANGDANGYUWEIJINSHIQIDEQINGYOUGUCANG、QINGYOUHU、QINGYOUGUANHESHIDAIKENENGJIAOWANDETUOJUDENGQIWU。ZHEISHIJIXINSHIQISHIDAIYOUTAODEFAXIANZHIHOUYOUYIBIJIAOZAOQICHANPINDEFAXIAN。ZHEIXIEGUCIDEFAXIAN,WEITANSUODEHUAXIANZAOQIDECIQITIGONGLEXINDEXIANSUO。

DEHUACHUTUDEZAOQIQINGYOUGUCANG  XIANWENGUANHUIGONGGAO

至唐末五代,由于中原战乱,北方人口大量南移,促进了泉州地区瓷器手工业的兴起。德化至唐后期,三班、泗滨一带制瓷业已比较发达,当地人颜化采并著有《陶业法绘梅岭图》,传授陶瓷工艺,(见《龙浔泗滨颜氏族谱》)“梅岭”今称“南岭”,解放后曾在这
里附近一带发现宋元明清窑址多处,南岭窑迄今仍在继续生产。1974年至1976年间,又先后在盖德、浔中、葛坑一带四座唐墓中出土了八件青釉的双复系盘口壶、双耳罐、假圈足碗等和福建历年出土的东晋南朝和唐代的青釉器的作风类同的器物,同时,在德化盖德碗坪  、浔中墙坪山、太平官和汤头的西墓丘古窑址中,也采集到一些具有唐至五代作风的标本,为追溯德化早期瓷器的生产提供了实物的佐证。[---分页---]

二、宋元时代德化瓷业的兴盛

SONG、YUANSHIDAISUIZHEQUANZHOUGANGDEDINGSHENG,DEHUACIYEDEDAOLEKONGQIANDEFAZHAN。CHUXIANLEJIAODADEZUOFANGHEGONGCHANG。1976NIANFAJUEDEZHEIGESHIDAIDEQUDOUGUANYAO,JINZHANG57.10MI,YOU17JIANYAOSHI,CHUTULEWAN、CANQIWULIUQIANDUOJIAN,GUIMOZHEIYANGDADEYAOCHANG,JIBUSHIGUANYAO,YEBUSHIDANJIADUHUJINGYINGDESIYAO,ERSHIYOUXINGZHENG、XINGZHANGHEXINGYANDEJIJIAJIHUHEJIANDEMINYAO。KEJIANDANGSHIDESHENGCHANYIJINGYUYUELEDANJIADUXINGDEJIEXIAN,JINRUDAOLIANHEQILAI,TONGYIJINGYINGXIANGDAGUIMOFAZHANDEJIEDUAN。TAHEYUANDAIYIDALIMAKE·BOLUODUIDEHUASUOCHENGZANDE“CIBUSHENDUO”“ZHIZAOWANJICIQI、JIDUOQIEMEI”TONGSHI“GOUJIASHENJIAN”(ZHUYI)SHIXIANGWENHEDE。

CONGFAXIANDEERSHIJIUCHUSONGYUANSHIQIGUYAOZHICHUTUDEQIWULAIKAN,ZHUYAOTEZHENGSHIQINGCIDECHENGSHUHEYIQINGBAIYOUWEIDAIBIAODECHANPINDADAOGAODUDECHENGJIU,TONGSHIZHUBUKAISHIXIANGBAIYOUCIFAZHAN。

BEISONGDEHUAYIWANPING  YAO、XIACANGWEIYAOWEIDAIBIAODEQINGCI,ZAITANG、WUDAIDEJICHUSHANGYOUSUOFAZHAN,WANPING  YAODEQINGCIYOUZHIJIAOBO、SHENQIANBUDA,FANHUIHUOFANHUANG。HUTOUYAODEQINGCITAIZHIXIMIJIANZHI,YOUZHIYINGRUNMINGLIANG,SHIYOUJUNYUN。ZHEIXIEQINGCIYOUMIANCHANGCHENGBINGLIEWEN。WEISONGDAIJIAOZAOQIDEDIANXINGCHANPIN。

QINGBAIYOUCIZAISONGYUANSHIDAIQIWUZHONGZHANYOUZHONGYAODEWEIZHI,SHIDANGSHIDEHUAYAODEDAIBIAO。ZHEIZHONGQINGBAIYOU,YOUZHIBO、YOUGUANGZEGAN,YOUDEWEIDAISHUIQINGSE,TAIPINGGONGYAOHEJIACHUNLINGYAODEQINGBAIYOUYIHENJIEBAI,JIEJINYUBAIYOUCI,TONGSHITOUMINGDUDA,KESHUOSHIBAIYOUCIDEMENGYA,QUDOUGONGYAOYOUXIEQIWUYOULVECHENGFENHONGSE,KESHUOSHIXIANGYABAICIDANSHENGDEYUZHAO。

SONGDAIDEHUAYAOCHULEQINGCIHEQINGBAIYOUWAI,ZAIWANPING  YAOZHIZHONGHAIYOUHEIYOUCI。QIQIWUYUJIANYAODETUHAOZHANJINSI,DANWENDEMAILUOHEYOUSEXUNYUJIANYAO。

ZHEIGESHIQICIQIDEZHUANGSHIFANGFA,CHULEKEHUAHUAWENWAI,HAIKAIPILEYONGMOYINDEXINTIANDI。RUJUNCHI、XIAOPINGDENGLEIQIWUYINZHIDEWENSHIYOULONGWEN、LIANHUABANWEN、CHANZHIHUAWENDENG,JINGUANZHONGLEIBUDUO,BIANHUABUDA,DANTUANDEZUCHENGQUEXIANDEWENYANGQINGXI、XIANTIAOLIUCHANG,POSUDAFANG,SHIYONGMEIGUAN,YINZHIDEJISHUYUNCHENGZIRU,YOUYAJINGQIAO;FENHESHANGYINZHIDEHUAWEN,QUEFUYUBIANHUA。HEGAISHANGXUANYONGJIANDANMUDAN、LIANHUA、JU、HEHUA、MEIHUA、KUIHUADENGHUADUOHUOYUNWEN、DANFENG、SHUANGFENG、YINGHAI、QIANWENDENGDENG,GAIXINSHIYIYIDUOHUA,ZHOUBIANYIJIANDANDEHUAWENZUOPEICHEN,YOUDEGAIXINYINZHI“FU”、“SHOU”、“FUHAISHOUSHAN”、 “JINYU”DENGJIXIANGWENZIHUO“8”、 “  ”TUAN,YOUDEHAIYINSHANGJUYOUXIANMINGYUANDAITEZHENGDEMENGGUZURENTOUXIANGHUOBASIBAWENZI,TUMIANZHUANGZHONG、XIEDIAO、DAFANG。DAXINGDEWAN、PANDEZHUANGSHI,ZESHICAIYONGZHUPIANHUOMIESHUKEHUADEFANGFA,HUAWENXIANTIAOLIUCHANG,YOUDEHAOMAIBENFANG,JIANQIANGGANGJING,YOUDEHUOPOXIAOSA、SHENGDONGYOUMEI。DUITIEJISHUZAISHAOSHUCIQISHANGYEBEICAIYONG,DANBINGBUPUBIAN。

CIQIDIAOSUZAISONGDAIYIJINGCHUXIAN,YUANDAIYIHENSHENGXING,WEIMINGDAICISUDEFAZHANHECHENGSHUDIANDINGLEJICHU。GENJU《PINGANZHI》JIZAI,YUANDAIDEHUACIYIJINGCHENGWEICHAOTINGYUYONGDEQIWU,BIAOXIANLEDANGSHIDEHUACIYEDECHENGJIU。SONGYUANSHIDAIDEHUACIQIYIDAPIXIAOWANGGUOWAI。GENJUGUONEIWAIZILIAOJIZAI,ZAIFEILVBIN、RIBEN,YINDUNIXIYA、SHALAOYUE、SILILANKADOUYOUCHUTU。QIZHONG“ZAIFEILVBINYIZHIYUMUZANGZHONGFAXIANSHUYIQIANJIJIAOWANZHENGHUONENGGOUFUYUANDEDEHUACIQI”“YINDUNIXIYAQUANJINGNEIDOUYOUFAXIAN。”(ZHUER)

三、明代德化瓷业的高超成就

MINGDAIZAIDEHUACIYEFAZHANSHISHANGSHIYIGEYINRENZHUMUDESHIQI。WULUNSHISHAOZHIJISHU、CIQIZHILIANG、SHENGCHANPINZHONGHEZAOXINGYISHUDENGGEFANGMIANDEZONGHEFAZHANDOUYUANYUANCHAOGUOSONGYUANZHISHANG,QIZHUYAODEBIAOZHISHIHECHAOZONGDECISUGUANYINWENMINGSHIJIE,BEIYUWEI“DONGFANGYISHU”DEJINGPIN;DUSHUYIGEDE“XIANGYABAI”CICHUANGZHICHENGGONG,BEIYUWEI“GUOJICITANDEMINGZHU”HE“ZHONGGUOBAI”;JIEJIYAODECHUXIANBINGCHUANDAOGUOWAI,DUIGUOJICIYAODESHEJICHANSHENGZHEJUDADEYINGXIANG。

HECHAOZONGDIAOSUDEDUHAIGUANYIN(JINBAOLIUZAIQUANZHOUSHIWENGUANHUI)QUANZHOUHAIJIAOGUAN  CHENPENGSHE

MINGDAIYIHECHAOZONGWEIDAIBIAODEDEHUACISUYISHUDUSHUYIGE,HUODELEGAOCHAODECHENGJIU。TASUOSUDEGEZHONGSHENXIANFOXIANGDOUYOUQIDUTEFENGGESHENYUN,BUJINSUCHUGEZHONGRENWUDETEDINGYITAI,QIENENGBIAOXIANCHUGEZIBUTONGDEXINGGE,XINGTAIBIZHEN,XUXURUSHENG,QIZHONGYOUYIGUANYINZUIFUSHENGMING,CHAOFANCHUSU,BIECHUXINCAI,ZAOXINGYOUMEI,SHENTAICIXIANGSUMU,YIWENJIANLIANPIAOFU,SHENXIUQINGXI,JIASHANGYUNYONG“XIANGYABAI”CITU,SHICIFOXIANDEZHIDIZINEN、RUNHOU、TAIGUJUNYUNJIANYING,MEIRUZHIYU,SHIRENAIBUSHISHOU。TADEZUOPINDANGSHI“ZAIDONGXIYANGSHICHANGSHANGDOUSHIREMENHUO,GEFANGYIGAOJIAZHENGGOU,YEYOUYIBUFENHUAQIAOXIEDAICHUGUO,RIBENJIDONGNANYAFOJIAOGUOJIADUITAGEWAIXIAI”(ZHUSAN)ERYOUZHE“TIANXIACHUANBAOZHI”(ZHUSI)DEZANYU,TADEGAOCHAOSUZAOYISHUCHUIFANHOUSHI,WEIHOURENSUOJINGYANGYUXUEXI。MUQIANWOGUOYIXIEWENWUDANWEISHANGLIUZANGTADEZHENPIN。GENJU《PUTIANXIANZHI》(CAOGAO)JIZAI,HEDEZUOPINJIEFANGQIANZAIPUTIANBEIRIBENHEMEIGUOLVEZOUDEJIUYOUCIGUANYIN、DAMO、FUHUZUSHIDENGSIZUN。MINGDAICISUDASHICHUHECHAOZONGWAI,JIANYUSHISHANGDEHAIYOUZHANGSHOUSHAN、LINCHAOJING,CHENWEIDENGREN,TAMENDECISUDEDONGWUCISUYEHENSHENGXING、RUDUNJUQILIN、XIAOQILIN、ZUOSHI、CISHIZI、CIRENQIMA、CIRENQILONG、CINIU、CISHUGOUDENGDENGWUBUHUOLONGHUOXIAN,DOURENXIAI。WURENJING、XINANCHAOSUOZHU《ZHONGGUOTAOCISHI》ZHONGCENGTIDAO;DEHUADEGEZHONGCISU“MINGJIZININGBOLIURURIBEN,RIBENFUREN,ZHIBUXIYIWANJINZHENGGOUZHI”,SHIJIECONGSHU《ZHONGGUOMEISHU》YETIDAOFAGUORENSHENERDINGYEZANGYOUMINGDAIDEHUAYAOJINGGONGQIAOZHIZIRUXIANGYA,QUANSHENYOUSERUERONGDEGUANGONGDIAOXIANGYIJIPUTI、DAMO、ZHONGLIQUANDENGZUOPIN。

MINGDAI“XIANGYABAI”(YICHENG“RUBAI”,“ZHUYOUBAI”、“ERONGBAI”,JIEFANGHOUCHENGWEI“JIANBAI”)CIDECHUANGZHICHENGGONG,BADEHUACIYEFAZHANTIGAODAOYIGEXINDESHUIPING。ZHEIZHONG“XIANGYA”CI,QISERUBAI,ZHIDIJIANRENYINGRUN,XINIYUNJIE,SUJINGDANYA,WENZHONGDAFANG,ZAIBAISEZHONGWEISHANHUANGSEYUNRUNINGZHI、BAIYU,HUOYINYUECHENGXIANROUHONGSE,SHIRENYIJIANDUNRANYOUJINGMUZHIGAN。CIZHIPIYOUJIEHEJINMI,BANTOUMINGDUGAO,ZAIDENGGUANGYINGZHAOXIA。GENGJIANQIROUHEYAZHI,YINRENXIAI。DEHUADE“XIANGYA”CIZAIXUANDEYIQIANJIUCHUANDAOBEIFANG,WEIDINGYAOSUOFANGZHI(ZHUWU),CHUANDAOGUOWAI,HUODEHENGAODEPINGJIA,FAGUORENCHENGZHIWEI“ZHONGGUOBAI”,(Blane de china)“NAIZHONGGUOCIQIZHISHANGPIN”(ZHULIU)“OUZHOUTAOYIZHUANJIAYAORENFANGZUOERBUKENENG……CHENGWEISHIJIESHANGZUIJINGLIANGDECIQI”(ZHUQI)。RIBENPENGYOUCHENGTAWEI“BAICIZHONGDEBAIMEI”(YIZUIWEIJIECHUDEZUOPIN)、“BAIGAOLI”,RENWEI“DUIBAIGAOLISHIDEBAICI,RUGUOYIKEGUANERGONGPINGDEGAODUJIYUPINGLUNDEHUA,KESHUOSHIBIBAIYUGENGYAOMEIGUANHUALI”“SHENZHISHENGYUBAIYU”, “KECHENGWEIZHONGGUOGUJINDUYIWUSHUANGDEYOUXIUZUOPIN”,ZHEIZHONG“YOUXIUCHANPIN,SUIRANTAIBIJIAOHOU,QUEBIDENGZHAOGENGYAOTOUMING……XIANCHUGUANGLIANGMEIGUANDEJIMIAN,YIGUANGHUADULAISHUOKECHENGWEITIANXIADIYI”“BAOYINGHAIDEGUANYINZAIRIBENDEJIDUXINTUZHONGDANGZUOMALIYASHENGXIANGERTIANSHOUHUANYING,QIXUYONGLIANGZHIDAJIHUDADAOJINGRENDECHENGDU。”  “YUESHILIUSHIJIQI,ZHEIGEBAICIOURANTONGGUOPUTAOYADEDONGYANGMAOYICHUANJIESHAODAOXIOUYIHOU,LIKE……DEDAOQUANOUZHOUGUIZUJIECENGDEXINCHANGHEHUANYING,BINGJIESHOUWUXIANDEDINGHUO。”(ZHUBA)

MINGDAICIQIDEZHUANGSHIHEZAOXINGYISHUYOUYOUCHUANGXINHEFAZHAN,PINZHONGFANDUO,ZHIZUOJINGQIAO。JISHIRIYONGHECHENLIEPIN,YESHIYOUXIUDEYISHUPIN。GENJUSHILIAOJIZAIHECHUTUFAXIAN,ZHUYAOPINZHONGYOU:

WANLEIYOUSUMIANWAN,KEZIWAN、FUHUAWAN、PINGXINWAN、ANHUACHANWENXIAOWAN;

BEILEIYOUSUOMIANBEI、YEXINGBEI、DUILINGYEXINGBABEI、BAJIAOJIULINGBEI、BAJIAOXIAOBEI、ANHUABAJIAOBEI、DUIHUABAJIAOBEI,GAOZUBEI、TAOBEI、DUIHUABEI、KEZIXIAOBEI、YINHUAJUEBEI、MATIBEI,LONGHUBEI、SHUTOUBEI、HUANIAOBEI,LIZHIXIAOBABEI、MEIHUABEI、MEIHUAJUEXINGBEI、BAJIAORENWUBEI,ZHIFANGERLIUJIAOXIAOBEI;

XILEIYOUHEYEXI、TOUDIAOHEYESHIXI、DUIHUAPANGXIEXI、YEXINGXIAOXI、QIUYESHIXI;

PINGLEIYOUXIANGYAPING、SHIERXIAOPING,SHISHOUSHUANGERPING、FUHUAGUANYINPING、BAIYOUDANPING、QINGHUAXIAODANPING、QINGHUATIANQIUPING、QINGHUASHUANGERPING、LUCONGSHIGUTONGXINGPING、JINGRAOMEIHUASHOUJUANSHIPING、TIANQIUDAKOUPING、YINHUALENGWENXIAOPING、MEIHUAWENTIEHUAPING、WUCAITIEHUACHILONGPING;

PANLEIYOUANHUAPAN、KEHUAMUDANPAN、WUCAIHUAHUIXIAOFANGPAN、WUCAISONGHEXIAOFANGPAN;

LULEIYOUXIAOLU、SHUANGERLU、SHIERLU、SANZULU、SANZUXIAOLU、SUOERSANZULU、GUISHILU、SHUANGERSHOUZUTIEHUAQIEQUWENGUIXINGLU、KUIWENSANZULU、XIANWENSANZULU、GUTONGQIWENLU、GUTONGZHILIUJIAOLU、YOUGAILIUZULONGERLU、JIERBIANLU、KEZHUSHIMUDANSANZUYUANLU、RUYIERYINHUABAJIAOXUNLU、YINHUABAJIAOXIXUNLU、LONGSHIYILU、ZHUJIELU、BAGUALU、KEZILU、SHOUZUTUDILU、SHUANGSHOUERLU、TIANGUANERXIANGZULIUJIAOLU、SHUANGERYINHUAKUILONGLEIWENDING、BANYUECHENJIANGLU、WUCAIHUANIAOXIANGLU;

HULEIYOUBIANZHIHU、GUALENGZHIHU、HEYEGAINIULONGBAHU;

SHUIZHULEIYOUGAOSHIZHENWOSHUIZHU、YUANXINGXIAOSHUICHENG,TONGZIPENGQIELUXINGSHUIZHU、TONGZIQIXIANGSHUIZHU、EXINGSHUIZHU、BISHANSHUIZHU、XIEXINGHUACHASHUIZHU;

DENGLEIYOULONGGU、XIAOHUAGU、HUAHUACHANZHIHUAWENGU、BAICIHUAGU、YINWENHUAGU;

YINZHANGYOUYUANXINGSHIZIYINZHANG、FANGXINGSHIZIYINZHANG、FANGXINGYINZHANG、YEQIULONGPANRAOTUZHANG、YINGBAISHUANGHUANNIUFANGYIN、PANHUNIUYINZHANG。

CIWAIHAIYOULVKONGBITONG、BAICIHUAPEN、YINHUAYANGFULIANBANSANCENGGUAN、TIANEZUN、DAMODUJIANGANPING、YINHUAFANGTONG  DENGDENG。YOUXIEMINGMUZHONGHAIFAXIANYOUCIYONG、CIGUANDIANYIJICIBANMUZHIMINGDENGDENG。

CIQIDEZHUANGSHISHOUFAYOUYINHUA、TIEHUA、HUAHUAHETOUDIAOSIZHONG。

YINHUAZHUANGSHIDETUAN,YOUFANGTONGQISHANGDEKUILONG、TAOTIE,YUNLEIWEN,YOUXIEZAOXINGYECAIYONGCHUANTONGDEXINGZHI。

TIEHUAZAIXUDUOQIWUSHANGDOUPUBIANDISHIYONG。RUZAIJUEXINGBEIDUISHANGMEIHUAZHI,DIZHOUZAIFUSHANGYIBIJIAXINGDEMEIHUASHUGAN,YOUDESHIDUITIEMEIHUAYULAN,YOUDEDUITIEMEIHUADONGWU。ZAIRUZAIDANPINGSHANGDUITIEMEIHUAJIHUOZHECHIHUWEN,JUYOUDUTEDEFENGGE。

KEHUAJIFAZAISONGYUANSHIDAIDEHUAYAOCHANPINZHONGSHICHANGJIANDE,DANZAIQIWUSHANGKEHUAJINGXIDEWENZITIJIHUOSHIJU,ZUOWEIQIWUSHANGDEZHUANGSHI,SHIMINGDAIDEHUAYAODEYOUYITESE。

TOUDIAOJIFAZAIMINGDAIYIQUDEJIECHUDECHENGJIU,TOUDIAOTAOBEI、TOUDIAOCIXUNLU、TOUDIAOBITONGHETOUDIAOCIDESHIZISHIBUKEDUODEDEYISHUJINGPIN。

MINGDAIDEHUAYAOCHANCHUBAIYOU(TEBIESHI“XIANGYABAI”)WENMINGYUSHIWAI,YEKAISHICAIYONGYOUXIAQINGHUA、WUCAI、FENCAIDESHENGCHANLE。

MINGQINGZHIJI,SHIDEHUAYAOFAZHANZUIWEIFANSHENGDESHIQI,DANGSHI,YANHAIYOUYULIANNIANZHANLUAN,HAIJINSENYAN,YANHAIYIDAICIYAOSUIZHISHUAILUO,SHANQUCIYEDEDAOXUNMENGDEFAZHAN。MUQIANYIFAXIANDEYAOZHIYOUSONGYUANSHIDAIDEERSHIJIUCHUYUEZENGDAOYIBAILIUSHIDUOCHU,SHENGCHANDIQUJIHUBIANJIQUANXIAN,QIZHONGYISHANGYONG、GEKENG、TANGTOU、XUNZHONG、SANBANYIDAIZUIWEIMIJI,JINGAOYANGDADUIFAXIANDEQINGDAIYAOZHIDAERSHISANCHU,ZHONGZHONGDIEDIE,BIANBUGECHUSHANTOU。JU1958NIAN11YUEYOUYINBEN《FUJIANBIANNIANSHI》JIZAI:“QINGDAIZUISHENGSHIQI,QUANXIANNIANCHANZHIYIBAISHUSHIWANYUAN,CONGSHICIGONGYIDEGONGRENYUELIANGWANWUQIANYUREN,DAXIAOCIYAOYOULIUSHIYUZUO”。

QINGDAIZAOQIHEZHONGYE,DEHUAYAODETEDIANSHIBAIYOUQIYANXUMINGDAIDEFENGGEJIXUFAZHAN:QINGHUACIDADAOQUANSHENGSHIQI;GEZHONGSECAIDEHUAMIANYEYOULETIGAO。

ZHEIGESHIQIYANXUMINGDAIFENGGEDEYINHUA、TIEHUAHETOUDIAODEFANGGUZUOPIN,CHUCHANGXIAOYINGGUO、FAGUODENGDIWAI,ZAIDONGNANYA、RIBENHEXIANGGANGJIGUONEIXUDUOWENBODANWEISHANGYOUBUSHAOYILIU。QIANLONGSHIDAIHECHAOCHUNDEJIANGLONGLUOHANHEGUANYINZUOXIANGZHIJINSHANGBAOCUNZAIXIANGGANG。YOURUXUNZHONGHUQIANXULIANGXIDECISUNISUYUANJINWENMING,ZHEJIANGNINGBOFUFUJIANHUIGUANJIYONGCHUNJINFENGDIANDEOUXIANGDOUCHUZIQISHOU,XINGSHENBIXIAO。《DEHUAXIANZHI》HAIJIZAIXULIANGXIHAI“ZAIYITAOHEBIAOMIANSHANGJINGGONGQIAODIAOCHENGDASHISHANCAILONGNVSHIBALUOHANYIJILONGHUYINGWUZHUSHIYANGLIU”KEJIANTACHUCISUWAI,ZAIMUDIAOYISHUSHANGYIDADAO“JINGGONGQIAODIAO”“GUIFUSHENGONG”DESHUIPING。

QINGCHUDEHUAHAICHUXIANLEKONGQUELVYOUCI,BINGCHUANRUFAGUO。 “CONG1708NIANYIHOU,FAGUOYINENGFANGZHIZHONGGUODEHUABAIYOUCI,DANHUODUJIAODI,RENGSHURUANCI”。(ZHUJIU)YINGWANGAIDEHUAQISHICHENLIESHIZHONGYOUXIEKANGXINIANJIANDEDEHUA“NIUNAIBAI”CIDEZAOXING。 “QIYANGSHIDOUZAISHIBASHIJIZAOQIBEIOUZHOUCIQIGONGRENSUOFANGZAO。”(ZHUSHI)KANGXINIANJIAN,DEHUAYAODEWUCAIYIRIZHENCHENGSHU,XIANGCHUANZAIQIANLONG、GUANGXUNIANJIANZUIWEISHENGXING。 “YIGEQIWUBIANBUGEZHONGSEHUA、CAIGONGJINGZHI,HUAYANGBIZHEN,ZHIDIBUYAYUFENCAI,BINGCHUANRUJIANGXIJINGDEZHEN。WUCAIYANSEBUFENSHIBENXIANHELANSHAN(YINJINJIAYUNTING)DESHIYINGZHIKUANGSHIJILVFAN、TONGLVDENGPEIHEERLIANCHENGDE,YANSEYOUHONG、LV、CHI、HUANGDENG。ZHIMINGUOCHUCAIYOUXUNZHONGCAICIZHUANMAISHANGLINFENGPENGCAIRURICHANJINSHUIJIYANGCAIYANLIAO,BENXIANYANLIAOZHUJIANBEIYANGCAISUODAITI”(ZHUSHIYI)

QINGDAIDEHUADEYOUXIAQINGHUACIZAIJISHUHEZHILIAOSHANGWANQUANZHANGWOLETADEKEXUEXINGNENG,BINGGUANGFANDIBEICAIYONG,JIHUSUOYOUQINGDAIYAOZHIDOUYOUSHENGCHAN,SHENGCHANGUIMOZHIDA、CHANLIANGZHIDUO,DADAOSHIWUKONGQIANDECHENGDU。QINGHUACIDEHUASHIFENGFU、QUCAIHENGUANG,YOULISHIGUSHI、RENWUSHINVDESHENHUACHUANSHUO、YOUXIANTU、GAOSHITU、FULUSHOUSANXINGTU、YINGXITUHEYIXIEMIAOXIESHENGCHANHUODONG、SHEHUIFENGSUDEGENGMU、YULIE、GONGDUTU;YOUXIAOPINSHANSHUIDEZIRANJINGWUTU;YOUMEI、SONG、ZHU、PUTAO、FOSHOU、MUDAN、QIANNIUHUA、KUIHUA,BAJIAO,YANGLIUHEGUAGUODENGZHIWUTUAN;YOUYUNLONG,YUNFENG、QILIN、XIONGSHI、MEIQUE、CHONGYU、SONGHE、FENGDIEDENGDONGWUTUAN;BIANSHIZEYOUJIAOYEWENDEYANGYE、CHUIYE、LIANHUABANWENDEYANGLIAN、FULIANHEJUANXIANWEN、LEIWENDENGDENGZHUANGSHI。CIWAI,HAIYONGLEGEZHONGYIJIYUWENZIWEIZHUTIDEWENZITUANHEYIXIEYUZONGJIAOYOUGUANDEFOFANZIHUOBAGUA,ZUOWEIWENSHI。QUANANDEZHUANGSHISHANGYIBAIDIGOUQINGHUADESHULIANGZUIDUO,YEYOUSHAOSHUSHIQINGDIBAIHUADE。YOUQISHIDONGSHANGHESHIPAIGEDE“YUEJI”YAOZUIWEITUCHU,QIQINGHUAYOUSEYOUJINGERYAJIE,GOUTUYANJINGONGZHENGQINGLI,BIAOXIANLEGAODUDEYISHUCHENGJIU,KANCHENGWEIDEHUAYAOQINGHUACIDEDAIBIAO。

QINGDAIDEHUAYAOQINGHUACIYESHICHANGXIAOGUOJISHICHANGDEZHONGYAOCHANPIN。ZAIFEIZHOUTANGANIKACHUTUDEQINGHUAYUANQUANDIANWENWAN、JIXIANGWENQINGHUAPANHEDIEYIJIHUALANWENQINGHUAPANDENGZHONGGUOCIQI(XIANZANGNIUJINDONGFANGYISHUBOWUGUAN)(ZHUSHIER)ZAIDEHUATONGLINGDENGNIANWUCHUYAOZHIDOUFENBIEYOUSUOFAXIAN,SHIDANGSHIWAIXIAODEDAZONGCHANPIN。[---FENYE---]

四、清代中、晚期德化瓷业的中衰

ZHIQINGDAIZHONG、WANQI,SUIZHEFENGJIANTONGZHIDEZHUJIANMEILUO,WAIGUOZIBENZHUYIDEQINRU,TEBIESHIYAPIANZHANZHENGYIHOU,ZHONGMUZHUBULUNWEIBANZHIMINDIBANFENGJIANSHEHUI,ZIJIZIZUDEZIRANJINGJIZAODAOPOHUAI,JIASHANGWAIGUOCIQIDALIANGYONGRU,DEHUACIYESHOUDAOYANZHONGDECUICAN,“XIANGYABAI”CIZHUJIANXIAOSHI,ERBIANWEIDANQINGSEDEBAIYOU,JISHISHIBAIYOUCI,BAIDUYEXUNYUMINGDAI,GEZHONGCISUYISHUPINDEPINZHONGYEBIMINGDAIDAWEIJIANSHAO,ERQIEZHUYAOSHENGCHANRIYONGCI.WAN、PAN、DIE、BEIDENG。ZAOXINGZHIQIUSHIYONGJIANPODAFANG,BURUMINGDAIJINGZHI,XIAOSHOUDEDUIXIANGYEZHUYAOSHIGUONEISHICHANG。

五、风雨飘摇中的民国时代德化瓷业

XINHAIGEMINGQIANHOU,SUIZHEMINZUZICHANJIEJISHEHUIDIWEIDETIGAO,ZHONGGUOCHUXIANLEXINGBANZIBENZHUYIGONGYEDERECHAO,DEHUACIYEYECHUXIANLEYIGEDUANZANDEFAZHANSHIQI。

清末民初,德化许友义三兄弟的瓷塑作品曾在英国、日本和上海、台湾的博览会上荣获四次金奖,许有义被誉为“特等雕塑师”。艺人苏学金“手制瓷梅花参加巴拿马万国博览会获得优奖”(注十二)游长子所雕塑的“人物形象极其鲜明地表达了复杂的内心感情,有着优美动人的风格”,到后期,他突破了“单纯佛像为题材的雕塑”,创作了一些表现劳动人民生活的渔、樵、耕、读的新题材,”并且还具有塑现场人象的绝技”(注十四)他的作品风靡中外,人争取售,到江西景德镇传授技艺,景德镇所有雕塑艺人
群起仿效。

MINGUOCHUQI,DEHUA“XIAOTAOSHI”、“QISHANSHI”YAODEFENCAIYEDUCHUANGYIGE,YUNYONGCHUANTONGGUOHUAJIFAHUIZHIGEZHONGSHENGDONGDEHUAMIAN,SHICAIHUADECIQIBIAOXIANDESHIFENSHENGDONG、YOUMEI、YANLI。GENJUMINGUOSHIBANIAN(1929)TONGJI:QUANXIAN“YECIZHEYOUSHUBAIJIA,ZHUANYEZHEJUSHAOSHU,YUJIEDUOYUNONGXIJINGYING”,“SUOCHANCIQILEIWEIBAISESUSE,SUOZHIFOXIANGHUAPINGDENG,JUNZHIJINGJUE,JUZHUANJIAKAOCHAQIPINZHIWEIQUANGUODIYI。”“CHANCIQUYUGUANGFAN,YOUHOUJING、HUANGCI、NANLINGJIQITASHIYUCHANG,YOUYIHOUJINGZHICHUCHANWEIZUISHENG,QUANJINGCIYAOSHUMUDUOZHIWULIUSHITIAO,GUJIKEYUJINGDEZHENTONGCHENG”(ZHUSHIWU)

由于日本和美国加紧对我国的侵略,加上军阀混战、土匪横行,地方不宁,德化瓷业发展便是昙花一现,1934年9月3日华侨商报周刊刊载的《闽南旅行记》指出:德化“瓷质和江西景德镇齐名,往年产的观音像,价值每尊千余元。惜民国以来,土匪横行,该地瓷业尽歇,而精制品虽间有收藏,
多埋藏于地下,不轻于人,盖防盗劫也。”

ZAIQUANGUOKANGRIMINZHUYUNDONGXINGAOZHANGHEDIZHIRIHUODOUZHENGDETUIDONGXIA,WEIZHENXINGDEHUACIYE,JINGXIANXIANGCUNSHIFANYAOQIUJUBANTAOXIAOZHISHENQING,MINGUOERSHISINIAN(1935)QIUJIYOUSHENGJIANSHETING、JIAOYUTINGBOKUANSANQIANYUANZAIDEHUAHEBANSHENGLITAOCIZHIYEXUEXIAOJIDEHUATAOCIGAILIANGCHANG,BINGPAIYUANFUJINGDEZHENXUEXI。CIXIAOKAISHECHUZHONGERNIANZHIYIBAN,ZHIYUANSIREN,XUESHENGSANSHIDUOMING,JIANYOUCHANGFANGSANCHUANG,SANJIANXIAOCIYAOYIZUOZUOWEISHIXIGONGCHANG,DANDIYIJIEXUESHENGBIYEHOUZHENGFUBUJIFENPEI,JIASHANGJINGFEIKUJIEERYU1937NIANTINGBAN。GAILIANGCHANGYONGYOUZHIGONGWUSHIYUREN,KAISHIZHISHIGAOMOXING,YOUTAOCHEGAIWEISHIGAOMOXINGZHUJIANGFA,BINGJIANDAOYANSHIYANSHIYISUO,GAIJINGUANGMIANPINZHONGJISHOUGONGCAIHUI,POYOUCHENGXIAO。HOUYIN“GUANLIBUDANG,FEIYONGHAOFAN,KUIBENWANYUYUAN”,SUIGAOTINGBAN。(ZHUSHILIU)1936NIANQUANXIANZHICIQUYOUBAOMEI、DONGTOU、GAOYANG、NANLING、HUANGCI、LETAO、HOUSUO、DINGQI、KERONG、CHENGTIANSIGESHICHUWUSHISANTIAOCIYAO,GONGRENWUQIANYU,NIANCHANZHIJINSHIYUWANYUAN,QIECHANPINZHILIANGYESHENCHA,CIZHIDUOXIBANDIAN,QIZHONGSANFENZHIER,YONGRENGONGTIAOZHIYONGCHUNZAICONGYONGCHUNZHUANYUNZHIQUANZHOU、FUZHOUDENGCHU,QIYUSANFENZHIYISHUCHUNBAICIQIJIANTIAOZHIXIANYOUZAISHIJIACAIHUI,YIJIANQINGSHUILV。1937NIAN7YUEKANGRIZHANZHENGQUANMIANBAOFA,DEHUACIYEKONGQIANSHUAILUO,JU1938NIAN10YUE21RIQUANZHOURIBAOSUOZAI:“QUANXIANGONGRENSHIYESANQIANYU。”TONGNIANSUIZAIDEHUACHUJIZHONGXUEFUSHESANNIANZHISHIYONGTAOCIZHIYEBANYIBAN,DANBUDAOYINIAN,YINJINGFEIWUZHEERTINGBAN,1939NIAN3YUEYOUJIANGDEHUAGAILIANGCHANGGAIWEIDEHUACIYEZHIDAOSUO,JIANBANCIYEDAIKUANJIDAISHOUZHIPINDENGYEWU。TONGNIAN11YUE,YOUJIANGCIYEZHIDAOSUOGAIZUWEIDEHUASHIYANCICHANG,ZHUANBANZHISHOUCAILIAO、GAIJINMINJIANLIANTUDEFANGFA、ZHIZAODIZHUAN、DIANYONGCIHEHUAXUECIQI、CAIYONGSHIGAOMOXINGCHENGPIJIJIQIZHIZAODENGSHIYAN。SHANGSHUDEGEZHONGSHIYANDUIDANGSHICIYEDEFAZHANQILEYIDINGDECUJINZUOYONG,TEBIESHISHIYANCICHANGSHIYANPINHEZIZHICAILIAOXIAOSHOUSHICHANGHOU,SHIMINYAODECHANPINZAICAISHIJISHIYANGSHANG,YOULEHENDADEGAIGUAN,QUANXIANCIYESHENGCHANSHAOYOUHUIFU,YU1938NIANDESHIYESANQIANYUDEQINGKUANGDUIBIYOULEJIANSHAO,CHUYUBANSHIYEDEGONGRENYOUTUGONG167REN,PIGONGYAOGONG767REN,CAIGONG252REN,ERQIZHONGCHUNCUIGONGRENJIN410REN。

1940NIANKANGZHANJINRUJINZHANGJIEDUAN,GUOMINDANGZHENGFUDAZHE“SHENGCHANJIUGUO”、“GONGSHANGJIUGUO”“ZAIKANGZHANZHONGZUODAOZIJIZIZU”DEQIHAO,ZAIYONGANJUBANLE《FUJIANSHENGGONGSHANGZHANLANHUI》,DEHUACIQISONGZHANDECHUSHIYANCICHANGWAI,HAIYOUZHENMEIMEI,YIYI、TAOYU、HUAMEI、CHUNYU、SHUNYI、TUOYU、MEIXING、YUGUANG、BUYU、JIESHENG、YUNYU、HOUJING、DONGTOUDENGCIYESHEHEDEHUACAICISHEYIJISHENGLIDEHUAJIANSHIDENGDANWEIDECHANPIN778JIAN,ZAISHENGNEIPOYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG。1941NIANCIYEZHIDAOSUOYOUGAIWEIFUJIANSHENGDEHUASHIFANCHANG,1944NIANFUGAIWEIGUANSHANGHEBANDEFUJIANSHIFANCIGONGSI,GAILIANGSUILVEYOUJINZHAN,DANSHEBEIHAISHIHENCHA,QUANCHANGZHIGONG42REN,JINYOUWUPICHAIYOUJIYITAI、LULUCHEWUTAI,XIAOXINGQIUMOJIYITAI、XIAOYAOSANJIANYIZUO,MEIYUECHANPINJINER、SANWANJIAN,HOUQICHANLIANGSUILVEYOUTIGAO,YEZHIYOUQI、BAWANJIANERYI。JU1934NIANDEYIDUANZILIAOSUOSHU: “DEHUACIYAO,WANGZHEWANGSHENGSHIHOUYOULIUQISHIJIA,XIANZAIZHISHENGXIASHIJIJIA”,YIWANG“SUOZHIDECIQIDUOYUNXIAOGUANGZHOU、XIANGGANG、SHANTOU、WENZHOUGEDI;MUXIAJIAOTONGBUBIAN,ZHINENGYUNXIAOXIANYOU、HANJIANG、YONGCHUN、JINJIANG、YONGAN、NANPINGGEDI,MEINIANMAIBUDAOERSANSHIWANQIAN,BIQIYIQIANCHADEDUOLE。”(ZHUSHIQI)1945NIANRIBENTOUJIANGHOU,GUOMINDANGYOUFADONGNEIZHAN,DASIZHUADING,DEHUACIYEYIXIANRUCENGCENGWEIJI,MINJIANCIYAODAOBIDAIJIN,ZHI1949NIANDEHUAJIEFANGJIEGUANWEIGUANSHANGHEBANDEGAILIANGCICHANG,YEZHISHENGXIAQIGEGONGREN、SANJIANPOCHANGFANG,ZHANDIMIANJISANBAIJIUSHILIUPINGFANGMI,WUPIDONGLIJIYITAI、DONGLILULUCHEWUTAI、CULIANNIJIYITAI、CITONGQIUMOJIYITAI、YITIAOSHAOCHAIDEXIAOCIYAOHEYIXIEJIAOWEIJIANDANDESHENGCHANGONGJU,WENMINGDEDEHUACIQIYICHUYUYANYANYIXIDEZHUANGTAI。

六、建国以来德化瓷业的发展和变化

1949NIAN11YUE24RIDEHUAJIEFANGHOU,CIYEFAZHANSHIKAISHILEXINDEYIYE。ZAIGONGCHANDANGHERENMINZHENGFUDELINGDAOXIA,BEIGUOMINDANGCUICANDEYANYANYIXIDECIYEHUODEXINSHENG,BEIESHADECHUANTONGGONGYIDEDAOLEQIANGJIU,CIYESHENGCHANZHUBUHUIFUFAZHAN,CHENGXIANCHUXINXINXIANGRONG、ZHENGZHENGRISHANGDEJINGXIANG。

JIEFANGHOU,1949NIANNIANDI,RENMINZHENGFUJIJIEGUANLEWEIGUANSHANGHEBANDEGAILIANGCICHANG,YOUYUSHEHUIZHIXUSHANGWEIANDING,ZHIYOUYIXIELINGXINGCISHANGHENONGMINJIANGUANCIYE,1951NIAN9YUEJINJIANGZHUANSHUPAICHUGANBU,XISHOUGONGRENZAIGAILIANGCICHANGJIUZHIBANQIGUOYINGLIMINCICHANG。YOUZAIYUANGUOMINDANGGUANYAZHUANGDINGDEBAOMEIDALOU,YOUZHENGFUTOUZIBANQILEGUOYINGDEHUALAOGAIGONGCHANG。LIANGGECICHANGGONGYOUGONGREN56REN。1954NIANBANQILEGONGSIHEYINGDEJILIANCICHANGHESHIBANLEBAOMEI、LIANGTAI、SANBANSANGECIYESHENGCHANHEZUOSHE,XIANCHENGFUJINDEXUNZHONG、DINGQI、GAOCAIDENGDIDENONGYEHEZUOSHEYEBANQILEXIAOCICHANG。1955NIANLIANGGEGUOYINGCICHANGLINGXUANZEDIDIANZHONGXINBUJUXINGJIAN,CHANPINKAISHICHUKOU。ZHI1956NIANLIANGGEGUOYINGCICHANGHEJILIANCICHANGGONGYOUZHIGONG1247REN。TONGNIAN,CAIJING、LINGTOUNONGYESHEYEBANQILEXIAOCICHANG。

1958NIAN,SHIXIANLERENMINGONGSHEHUA,LIANGTAI、SIBIN、SANBANGONGSHE.GAOCAI、XUNZHONG、XUNZHONGGONGSHE、HONGCI、DINGQI、KUIDOU、XIABIGONGSHE、RUIBAN、LINGTOU、CAIJINGXIANGJIBANQILESHISANGESHEDUICICHANG,YONGYOUZHIGONG1144REN,TOUCHANDECIYAOSANSHITIAO,XIAOSHOUZHINIANQIGEGUOJIAHEDIQU。DAO1959NIAN,JINDEHUA、XINJIAN、JILIANSANGEDACHANGDETONGJI,GUOJIATOUZI110DUOWANYUAN.XINJIANCHANGFANGSANWANERQIANDUOPINGFANGMI,ZHIJIECONGSHICIYESHENGCHANZHIGONG2800DUOREN。QUANXIANYONGYOUCIYAOWUSHIWUTIAO,CHANZHIZHANQUANXIANGONGYEZONGCHANZHI41.05%。DAO“WENHUADAGEMING”QIANXIDE1965NIAN,DEHUACICHANG、XINJIANCICHANGHERENMINCICHANG(YUANWEIJILIANCICHANG)ZHIGONGZENGZHI1847REN,QUANXIANCIYEZONGCHANLIANGBI1956NIANZENGZHANGYIBEI。1971NIANRENMINCICHANGYUXINJIANCICHANGHEBING,GAIMINGWEIHONGQICICHANG,LIANTONGDEHUACICHANGERGECHANGGONGYOUZHIGONG1465REN,HAIYOULIUGEGONGSHECICHANGHEERSHIDUOGEDUIBANCICHANG,QUANXIANCONGSHICIYESHENGCHANRENYUAN3000YUREN。 “WENHUADAGEMING”QIJIAN,YOUYULINBIAO、 “SIRENBANG”DEGANRAOPOHUAI,SHIDEHUACIYESHENGCHANZAODAOYANZHONGDECUICAN,CONG1966NIANZHI1972NIANZHEIDUANSHIJIANLI,SUIRANZONGCHANZHIBI1965NIANLVEYOUZENGJIA,DANLINIANDEZONGCHANLIANGDOUBI1965NIANXIAJIANG。TEBIESHI1970NIANSUOWEI“CILIANGZHIZHENG”QUANXIANKANDIAOERSHIJIGESHEDUICICHANG,ZAOCHENG1971NIANQUANXIANCIYEZONGCHANLIANGMINGXIANXIAJIANG。1973NIANGUANCHEDANGHEGUOWUYUANDEYOUGUANWENJIAN,CIYESHENGCHANCAIHUIFUDAO1965NIANDEZONGCHANSHUIPING。

FENSUI“SIRENBANG”HOU,TEBIESHIZAIDANGDESHIYIJIESANZHONGQUANHUILUXIANDEZHIYINXIA,JINJINIANCIYEFAZHANGENGKUAI,WULUNSHICHANLIANGHAIYOUZHILIANG、HUASEPINZHONGJUNHUODEDAFUDUDEZENGZHANG。JU1981NIANTONGJI,QUANXIANCIQIZONGCHANLIANGBI1978NIANZENGZHANG45%;CHANZHIZENGZHANG92%,CHUKOUCIZENGZHANG26.84%,CIDIAOCHENSHECIZENGZHANGLIUDIANJIUBEI。1981NIANCIQICHANZHIZHANQUANXIANGONGNONGYEZONGCHANZHIDE21.85%,ZHANGONGYEZONGCHANZHIDE60.52%,TAOCIYESHUILIZHANQUANXIANCAIZHENGZONGSHOURUDE44.7%,CIYESHENGCHANCHENGWEIWOXIANGONGYESHENGCHANDEZHONGYAOZHIZHU,SHIQUANXIANJINGJIZHUYAODEMINGMAI。

XIANZAI,QUANXIANYOUGUOYINGDEDEHUACICHANGHEDEHUADIERCICHANG,HAIYOUERQINGJUDEGONGYIMEISHUTAOCICHANGHELONGXUN、XUNZHONG、GAIDE、SANBAN、LEIFENG、GUOBAO、CHISHUI、CHUNMEI、DAMING、XIABI、SHANGYONGDENGSHIYIGESHE(ZHEN)BANDESHIWUGECICHANG、TAOCICHANGHEJINZHUANCHANG,HAIYOUXUNZHONG、LONGTAI、GAOYANG、DINGQI、DINGXI、YINGSHAN、SHIAN、SHIGU、TUBAN、XIANJING,SHISHAN、LONGHAN、GAIDE、SANFU、DAQI、LINDI、LEIFENG、RUIBAN、PANCI、LIXI、DONGJI、SHUORU、HUJING、QIAONEI、LINGTOU、LONGQUE、KUIDOU、SIBIN、DONGSHAN、CAIJINGDENGSANSHIERGEDUIBANCICHANG。QUANXIANCONGSHICIYESHENGCHANZHIGONGQIQIANYIBAIDUOREN。

JIANGUOYILAI,DEHUACIYESHENGCHANSHEBEIYERIZHENWANSHAN,KEXUEJISHUMUYITIGAO。JIEFANGCHUQI,SHENGCHANGUOCHENGDOUSHIYANYONGCHUANTONGDESHUILIFENSUI、TUSHOUCHENGXING、TAIYANGGANZAO、DENGYAOHUOLONGYAOSHAOCHENG,SHOUGONGCAIHUIDELUOHOUSHOUGONGCAOZUOHEBENZHONGDETILILAODONG,SHENGCHANPINZHONGYEBIJIAODANDIAO。1959NIANZAIGUOYINGCICHANGZHONGSHIYANYONGMEIDAICHAISHAOCI,JINGGUODUOCIFANFUGAIJIN,YU1960NIANJIANCHENGMEIQIDAOYANYAO,GAIBIANLEQIANNIANLAISHAOCIYONGCHAIDEZHUANGKUANG。ZHI1965NIAN,ZHEIXIEGUOYINGCICHANGCONGCITUJIAGONGDAOCHENGPINCHUCHANG,JUEDABUFENDERENGONGZHONGTILIYIBEIJIDIANDONGLISUOQUDAI,JUYOUCITUFENSUIJI、QIUMOJI、LIANNIJIDENGJIAGONGSHEBEI,CHENGXINGYAPIJI、LIANSHIHONGGANHETIEHUALIUSHUIXIAN,TIGAOLEBANJIXIEHUASHENGCHANLIUCHENG,JIEFANGLELAODONGLI,CUJINLESHENGCHAN。1972NIANLIANGGEGUOYINGCICHANGYOUKAISHISHIYONG1966NIANJIANCHENGDENIANCHANLIUBAIWANJIANDESUIDAOYAO,ZAISHAOCHENGSHEBEISHANGSHIYIGEJIAODADEGEXIN,CONGCI,YOUJINYIBUJIAKUAILECIYEFAZHANDEBANJIXIEHUAHEJIXIEHUADECHENGDU。XIANZAILIANGGEGUOYINGCICHANGDECHANGFANGBUDUANKUODA,MIANMAOHUANRANYIXIN,JIEZHI1980NIANTONGJI,DEHUACICHANGCHANGFANGYONGYOUMIANJIJIUWANSIQIANSANBAIWUSHIJIUPINGFANGMI,JIJIANMIANJIWUWANSANQIANSIBAIDUOPINGFANGMI,DEHUADIERCICHANGYONGDIMIANJISHIQIWANBAQIANDUOPINGFANGMI,JIJIANMIANJISIWANBAQIANWUBAIPINGFANGMI。SHEDUICICHANGDECHANGFANGSHEBEIHEJIXIEHUACHENGDUYEPUBIANDEDAOJIAODADEFAZHAN,ZHIGONGFULISHENGHUOYEDEDAOJIAODADEGAISHAN。

KEYANGONGZUOZAIGEGECICHANGZHONGPUBIANYOULEJIAQIANG。WULUNZAIPEIXUNTAOCIZHUANYERENCAIHUOSHIZHUAHAOTAOCIKEJIGONGGUANDENGGEGEFANGMIANDOUQUDELEKEXIDECHENGJIU。MINGDAIBEIYUWEI“GUOJICITANDEMINGZHU”、 “SHISHANGDUYIWUERDEZHENPIN”DEXIANGYABAICI,DAOQINGMOYIJINGSHICHUAN,1956NIANHUIFULESHAOLIANGSHENGCHAN,BINGGENGMINGDE“JIANBAI”CI,1972NIANYOUYONGBENDICITUZUOYUANLIAOPEIFANGQUDELEHUIFUCHUANTONGXIANGYABAICIDECHENGGONG,TOURUPILIANGSHENGCHAN。HUIFUSHENGCHANDEXIANDAIJIANBAICIQI,CIZHIKEYUMINGDAICHANPINXIANGPI,YOUMIANDEJINGYINGDUSHENZHILVESHENGYUMINGCI,ERQIEXIANZAICAIYONGTESHUDIANYAOSHAOCHENG,GONGYIKEXUE,XIAOGUOGENGWEIWENDING、LIXIANG,JUYOUMINGDAITESE,1979NIANRONGHUOQINGGONGBUSHOUYUDEYOUZHICHANPINZHENGSHU。YONG“JIANBAI”CISHENGCHANDEFANGMINGHEHUABEI,MEIHUABEI、KUIWENBAERBEI、LIUZUNIUTOUZUN、SHOUERSANZULUHEGUANYINDENGGEZHONGYOUXIUCHUANTONGCHANPIN,DOUZAIJICHENGCHUANTONGZAOXINGJIYIDEJICHUSHANG,YOUCHONGFENFAHUIZHIYUTEZHI,ZAOXINGJINGMEI,WEIZHONGWAIGEJIERENSHISUOZHENZHU。GAOYAJINGMEIDEBAJIAO、YANGTOU、MUDAN、SHUANGFENGHUAPINGHE“QINGCHUN”JIANBAIYISHUCI,JUNBEIXUANWEIGUOJIALIPINCI,QIZHONGWEIBEIJINGRENMINDAHUITANGTEZHIDEYIPIJIANBAICHAJU,GENGSHISHENSHOUGEJIEDEZANSHANG。

DEHUACICHANGYISHUCICHEJIAN    CHENSHIZHESHE

CIDIAOYISHUSHIDEHUAYAODUSHUYIGE,ZAIGUOJISHANGXIANGYOUSHENGYUDECHUANTONGCHANPIN。JIANGUOYILAI,DEHUACISUZAIJICHENGCHUANTONGYOUXIUGONGYIDEJICHUSHANG,YOULEXINDEFAZHAN,XIANZAI,SHENGCHANDEGEZHONGLISHICHUANTONGTICAIDECHANPINDASANBAIWUSHIDUOZHONG,GELEIZISHIHEGUIGEDECIGUANYINYIBAIDUOZHONG,DADEGAODA1.7MI,ZHUANGYANSUMU,QISHIBANGBO;ZUIXIAODEZHIYOU5LIMI,QINGYIJUANXIU,YOURUZHANGSHANGMINGZHU。GONGYIMEISHUTAOCICHANGSHENGCHANDE“ERSHISISHOUGUANYIN”JINGZHIYAGUAN,YICHENGWEIGAICHANGQUANTOUCHANPIN,QUNIANBEIPINGDINGWEISHENG“YOUZHICHANPIN”。ZHEIXIESHENTAIGEYIDEXINGXIANGJICHENGHEFAZHANLE“CHUANSHENXIEYI”DECHUANTONGSHOUFA,XINGSHENJIANBEI,DONGJINGXIANGCHENG,JIBAOCHISHENHUADESECAI,YOUYUNHANZHEMEIHAO、JIANKANG、XINGFUDEYIJING,JIRENYIYISHUDEXIANGSHOUHEGANRANLI。TONGSHIYOULIYONGCITUDEBUTONGTEZHIHEPEIFANG,JIASHANGYISHUZHUANGSHI,SHICISUGENGFUYUBIANHUA。JIANBAICISU,RUZHISIYU,BEIJIAGUIQI;GAOBAICISU,YINGJIEMINGKUAI,GEDIAOQINGXIN;HAIERHONGCI,LINGGUANGBAOQI,FUMEIXIREN;PUBAICISU,SUZHUANGQINGYA,SUERBULOU;SEYOUCISU,ZHUANGYANWENZHONG,HUALIDUOCAI;JIACAICISU,XUANMEIDUOMU,SEZEXIANMING;DUJINCISU,CUICANYONGGUI,SHENYUNGANREN。ZAILICIDEGUONEIWAIGONGYIMEISHUCISUCHANPINDEPINGBIZHONG,DEHUACISUGONGYIPINJUNHUODEHAOPING,BINGDUOCIDEJIANG。XIANZAIDEHUACICHANG、DIERCICHANGZHUANMENJIANLILEYISHUCICHEJIAN,HAIYOUGONGYIMEISHUTAOCICHANG、LONGXUNZHENGONGYICHANG、XUNZHONGGONGYICHANG、XUNZHONGJINZHUANCHANG、SANBANCICHANG、GUOBAOCICHANG、DONGJICICHANGJICIYANSUODENGSHIDUOGESHENGCHANDANWEISHENGCHANGONGYICI、CHENSHECI。

CHUANTONGCHANPINZHONGJIANTIANRI,CHUANGXINPINZHONGDAFANGYICAI,DEHUADIERCICHANGYANJIUCHENGGONGDEGAOJIBAIDUCI,JINGGUOJIACEDING,CIZHIBAIDUDADAO88.1DU。JUYUQUANGUOQIANLIE。ZHEIZHONGCIZHIDICHUNBAITOUMING,YOUBAIGUANGZEZHAOREN,ZHENGTIRUERONGBAIXUE,CHANPINJIANSHINAIYONG,YONGTAZHICHENGDEKAFEIJU、FENJU、BEI、HUDENGGEZHONGCHANPIN,GEDIAOQINGXINXIREN。TAHECHUANTONGDEDEHUACISU、XIANGYA(JIANBAI)CIBINGYUWEICIZHONGSANDUOJUYOUTESEDEJINHUA。

DONGJICICHANGSHENGCHANDEKAIPIANYOUHESEYOUCHANPINYEBIEJUYIGE,CHANGXIAOGUONEIWAISHICHANG。

XIANZAI,DEHUASHENGCHANDECHANPINYOUCISU、RIYONGXICIHECHENSHECISANDALEISHUBAIGEPINZHONG。CIQIZHUANGSHIYOUSEYOU、YOUXIACAI、FUDIAO、HUAKE、TIANYOU、LVKONGYIJIYOUSHANGDEHUA、YIN、PEN、TIE、FUSHIGOUJINDENGSANSHIDUOZHONGFANGFA,GEZHONGSHANSHUIHUAHUI、GUJINRENWU、FEIQINZOUSHOU、YUXIAGUOSHUDENGFUYOUMINZUFENGGEDEZHUANGSHITUANWENYANGDUOXUANYIQIANDUOZHONG,RIYIXIANGRIYONGCIYISHUHUA、YISHUCISHIYONGHUADEFANGXIANGFAZHAN。

DANGDESHIYIJIESANZHONGQUANHUIYILAI,DEHUAGONGYIMEISHUTAOCIDUIWUXUNSUFAZHAN,YIZHIGONGYIMEISHUKEJIDUIWUCHUBUXINGCHENG。CHENGLILETAOCIGONGSI、TAOCIJIGONGXUEXIAO、TAOCIYANJIUSUO、TAOCIXUEHUI、GONGYIMEISHUXUEHUI、TAOCIJIXIECHANG、BAOZHUANGZHIXIANGCHANG、YOUXIAHUAZHICHEJIANDENGPEITAOJIGOU,TAOCIGONGYETIXIZHENGZAIZHUBUJIANLIHEWANSHAN。DEHUACICHANG、DIERCICHANGZHUANMENJIANLILEYISHUCICHEJIAN,PEIYANGYISHUGUGAN,XIANYOUTAOCIGONGCHENGSHI4REN、ZHULIGONGCHENGSHI11REN,GONGCHENGJISHUYUAN23REN,TAOCIKEYANGONGZUOYIZHUBUJIAQIANG,CHUYOUJIHUAYOUZUZHIDEPAICHURENYUANDAOQUANGUOGEZHUMINGCIYECHANQUCANGUANXUEXIWAI,1983NIAN5YUEFENDEHUACICHANGFUCHANGZHANGNICUIBIHAIDAORIBENKAOCHA。

SUIZHECIYESHENGCHANDEFAZHAN,DEHUACIQIZAIGUONEIWAISHICHANGXIAOSHOUYUELAIYUEGUANGFAN,JIEFANGYILAI,XIANHOUJINGXIAOSHIJIEWUDAZHOUBASHIGEGUOJIAHEDIQU,WAIXIAOJIBENKEHU200DUOGEHEGUONEI250GEXIANSHI。QUANXIANCIQIWAIXIAODESHENGCHANDANWEIYOUGUOYINGDEDEHUACICHANG、DEHUADIERCICHANG;ERQINGJUGONGYIMEISHUTAOCICHANG;SHEZHENDEYOULONGXUNZHENGONGYIMEISHUTAOCICHANG、XUNZHONGGONGSHEDIYICICHANG、XUNZHONGGONGSHEDIERCICHANG、SANBANGONGSHECICHANG、SANBANGONGSHEXINTINGCICHANG,GUOBAOGONGSHEDIYICICHANG、GUOBAOGONGSHEDIERCICHANG、GAIDEGONGSHECICHANG、XIABIGONGSHECICHANG;DUIBANYOUXUNZHONGDADUIDIYICICHANG、XUNZHONGDADUIDIERCICHANG、LONGTAIDADUICICHANG、DINGQIDADUICICHANG、TUBANDADUICICHANG、GAOYANGDADUICICHANG、CAIJINGDADUICICHANGHESUYANGDADUIDONGJICICHANGDENGERSHIGESHENGCHANDANWEI。

注  释:

(ZHUYI)JIANYUAN·《MAKE-BOLUOXINGJI》ERJUANYIBAIWUSHILIUZHANGCITONGTIAO,FENGCHENGJUNYI,ZHONGHUASHUJU1954NIAN10BAN。

(ZHUER)JIANLIHUIBING:《GUANYUDEHUAQUDOUGONGYAODEWOJIAN》(《WENWU》1979NIAN5QI68YE)

(ZHUSAN)JIANHONGHU:《MINGDAICISUDASHIHECHAOZONG》(《HUAQIAOZHOUKAN》DI22JUANDI5QI)

(ZHUSI)JIAN《FUJIANTONGZHI》DIJIUSHISANCEYISHUCHUAN·TAOCI·MING。YOUJIAN《QUANZHOUFUZHI》(QIANLONGBAN)JUANLIUSHILIU·MING·YISHU。

(ZHUWU)RIBENSHANGTIANGONGFUZHU《ZHINEIGUTAOCIYANJIU。SHOUYIN》YISHUCENGTIDAO:“XUANDEDEDINGYAOYOUCHUNBAIYOUDEDONGXIHEYASE(JIRULAOSEDE)LIANGZHONG,SUIRANYESHIFANGZAODEHUAYAODEDONGXI,DANZAISHOUFASHANGXIANMINGTUCHU,FEICHANGYINRENZHUMU……”。

(ZHULIU)JIANBOXIERZHU、DAIYUEYI《ZHONGGUOMEISHU》JUANXIADIQIPIAN,1937NIANSHANGWUYINSHUGUANCHUBAN。

(ZHUQI)CANKANM·F·Farley Chiuese PouelainWEIZHI《KEKUADEDEHUAYAO》1936NIAN5YUEFUJIANXIEHEDAXUEFUJIANWENHUAYANJIUHUIBAN。

(ZHUBA)YISHANGFENBIEYINZIRIBENSHANGTIANGONGFUZHU《ZHINEIGUTAOCIYANJIU SHOUYIN》HE《ZHINEITAOQISHIDAIDEYANJIU》

(ZHUJIU)JIANJIANGXISHENGQINGGONGYETINGJINGDEZHENTAOCIYANJIUSUOBIANZHU《ZHONGGUODECIQI》1963NIANBEIJINGBAN。

(ZHUSHI)YINZI《YUANDONGTAOCIGAISHU》NIUJINDAXUE1924NIANCHUBAN。

(ZHUSHIYI)JIAN《DEHUAXIANZHI》DISANHAO《DEHUACIYEJIANSHI》1961NIAN3YUEYOUYINCAOGAO。

(ZHUSHIER)JIANXIANAI《ZUOWEIZHONGFEIGUDAIJIAOTONGGUANXIZHENGJUDECIQI》(《WENWU》1963NIANDIYIQI)。

(ZHUSHISAN)JIANMINGUOERSHIBANIANBAN《DEHUAXIANZHI》。

(ZHUSHISI)JIANJINGDEZHENTAOCIGUANBIAN《CIDOUTAOCIYISHUJIA》。

(ZHUSHIWU)JIANCHENWENTAO:《FUJIANJINDAIMINSHENGDILIZHI》(MINGUOSHIBANIANSHIYUECHUBAN)。

(ZHUSHILIU)JIANMINQIAOSHEMINGUOSANSHINIANSIYUESANRITEGAO《LONGXUNMINGCHANXIAOZHANG》。

(ZHUSHIQI)JIAN《FUJIANSHENGDIFANGJIAOCAI》XUJUNMEI、ZHANGYUANHEBIAN“FUJIANSHENGDESHOUGONGJIYI”BUFEN,MINGUOSANSHIERNIANSHIYIYUECHUBAN,FUJIANSHENGZHENGFUJIAOYUTINGCHUBAN。

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                1. học tiếng Trung onlineyoga Viet Nam

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